- w.4.1. write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
o introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
o provide reasons that are supported by facts and details.
o link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition).
o provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
- w.4.2. write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
o introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
o develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
o link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because).
d.use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
o provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
- w.4.3. write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
o orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
o use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.
o use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of events.
o use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
o provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.
- w.4.4. produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
- w.4.5. with guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.
- w.4.6. with some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting.
- w.4.7. conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.
- w.4.8. recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources.
- w.4.9. draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
o apply grade 4 reading standards to literature (e.g., “describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions].”).
o apply grade 4 reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text”).
- w.4.10. write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
o use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why).
o form and use the progressive (e.g., i was walking; i am walking; i will be walking) verb tenses.
o use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions.
o order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).
o form and use prepositional phrases.
o produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.*
o correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).*
- l.4.2. demonstrate command of the conventions of standard english capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
o use correct capitalization.
o use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.
o use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence.
o spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.
- l.4.3. use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
o choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.*
o choose punctuation for effect.*
o differentiate between contexts that call for formal english (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion).
- l.4.4. determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
o use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
o use common, grade-appropriate greek and latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph).
o consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
- l.4.5. demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
o explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture) in context.
o recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
o demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms).
- l.4.6. acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).